CREB - Center for Research in Economics and Business

Privatization in Education Research Initiative (PERI) Survey

The Privatization in Education Research Initiative (PERI) School Choice Survey was conducted by the Lahore School of Economics, in collaboration with the Punjab Bureau of Statistics in 7 rural districts of Punjab where 1 district was from North Punjab, 4 from Central Punjab and 2 from South Punjab[1]. The survey was conducted in April, 2011. A total of 1024 households were surveyed in 64 clusters spanning over 8 tehsils in 7 districts. These households are a subsample of the households surveyed under the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), 2007-08, thus allowing the construction of a panel dataset.The survey questionnaire comprised three parts. This entailed collecting information on: (a) 16 households in each cluster (Part 1), (b) children ranging between 3 to 18 years of age (inclusive) in the surveyed households (Part 2) and (c) public and private schools in the respective cluster (Part 3).

In part 1, information was collected on two main aspects of the household. The first one consisted of collecting basic member-level information for all household members such as age, gender, marital status, relationship to the household head, literacy level (for individuals 10 years and above), income level, health status etc. On the other hand, the second aspect consisted of collecting household-level information on various characteristics such as type of dwelling (i.e. katcha, pakka, area and value of house etc.) ownership of possessions[2] as well as ownership of land (its area, value and type i.e. arid, barren, irrigated etc.) and animals, access to utilities (i.e. gas, electricity, water etc.), additional sources of household income (i.e. remittances, transfers, pension benefits etc.) so as to gauge the wealth status of the household. For purposes of creating a panel dataset, however, most of the modules in this part of the questionnaire were taken from the MICS 2007-08 questionnaires.

Part 2 consisted of collecting detailed information on all children ranging between 3 to 18 years of age (inclusive) in the surveyed households. The pre-condition for conducting this part of the questionnaire was that only a parent, either the mother or the father of the respective child should be the respondent. In line with the survey objectives, detailed information was collected on the perceptions of parents of 1856 children regarding various dimensions of their child’s schooling such as quality of child (whether he is hardworking and intelligent), the infrastructure and amenities at their child’s school, teacher absenteeism and educational qualifications, and school’s academic quality. Also, questions were also asked to get an idea of benefits of education and employment opportunities available to the child as perceived by his/her parents. Information was also gathered on school-switching behavior, physical access to schools and expenditure incurred by parents on their child’s education. Other than that, modules on child labour and women empowerment were also included.

Part 3 of this questionnaire aimed to address the aspects of supply of schooling and gathered detailed information on the public/private schools in the cluster. School characteristics such as its medium of instructions, number of teachers and their qualifications, total (class-wise and gender-wise) enrollment and schools’ infrastructure were surveyed. This part also inquired some community level questions such as presence of a factory and training institution to get an idea of opportunities available to the residents.

[1] The study uses the regional classification given in Cheema et al. (2008) for Punjab.
[2] These included radio, television, cable, mobile phone, computer, refrigerator, air conditioner, washing machine/dryer, Fan/Air cooler, cooking range, sewing/embroidery machine, iron, watch, animal-drawn cart, bicycle, motorcycle, car or some other vehicle etc.